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In the article, the author identifies two groups of reasons that guided Anaximenes when he had chosen aer as arche of everything. One group of reasons has a scientific origin, while the other group includes less reflected motives that emerged from the common spiritual ambiance where Anaximenes and the other two Milesians had lived. Contrary to the frequently taken attitude about the Anaximenes' regress towards Anaximander when it comes to postulating air as a principle, the author is of the opinion that the attitudes of the last Milesian make progress in comparison with his predecessors. Firstly, the evidence for this statement could be found in his writing style – prose, that points out Anaximenes' retreat from mythological background and an approach to rational discourse. Secondly, Anaximenes reformulated the original context of the word aer into its current meaning of invisible matter that surrounds us, understanding air as "something" rather than "nothing" and setting it as a principle. He also stepped forward while refining philosophical terminology, distinguishing substance and affections. With Anaximenes, finally, obvious differences in the type or quality were reduced for the first time to a common origin in the difference in quantity. To this should be added the introduction of syntagm of condensation and rarefaction, with which he tried to explain the becoming and change, thus, Anaximenes anticipated the discovery of the efficient cause or causa efficiens by this conceptual pair.

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KALUĐEROVIĆ, ŽELJKO . (2022). AER AS AN ARCHE. Arhe, 18(36), 9–28.


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